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GfK MRI User Guide Definitions

A - D

Adults, Men, Women - Persons aged 18 or over living in households in the continental 48 states.

Asterisk - A means of identifying statistical estimates based on respondent counts of under 50, both in the reports and in MEMRI3 output. Since small samples have larger sampling tolerances, the asterisk (*) is a warning to the user that the projection should be used with care, in that it may not be reliable.

Audience - Members of a specified population who are exposed to a medium or vehicle, usually expressed as number of persons.

Audience, Average-Issue (Magazine) (Total Audience) - The total audience of a magazine includes all respondents who read or looked into a copy of the magazine during its most recent publication period (7 days for weeklies, 30 days for monthlies, etc.)

Audience, (Cable or Pay) - These estimates represent the number of people living in households that have cable or pay TV.

Audience, Cable Networks - These estimates represent the number of people who reported watching the specified network within the last seven days.

Audience, In Home (Magazine) - That portion of the magazine audience who read the magazine in their own home.

Audience, Primary (Magazine) - That portion of the magazine audience where someone in the household obtained the copy either by subscription or newsstand purchase.

Audience, (Radio) Daypart Cumes - These estimates represent the number of people listening to the radio at any time during the specified time period on a week day or weekend.

Audience, (Radio) Formats - These estimates represent the number of people listening to a station with a specified format at any time during an average week.

Audience, (Radio) Networks - These estimates represent the number of people listening any time during an average week, to any station that is part of the specified network.

Audience, Secondary (Magazine) - Those readers of magazines who do not live in households where the magazine was purchased or received by subscription. Also called “pass-along audience.”

Audience, (TV) Average Half Hour - The number of people viewing TV during an average half hour in the specified weekday time slot. This is obtained by weighting each respondent by the proportion of half hours viewed to the total half hours in the specified time slot.

“Business to Business” Report - An annual Mediamark report that provides data on purchase influence for business products and services.

CBSA - (Core Based Statistical Area) - A CBSA is a statistical geographic entity consisting of the county or counties associated with at least one core (urbanized area or urban cluster) plus adjacent counties having a high degree of social and economic integration with the core, as measured through commuting ties with the counties containing the core. A metro area contains a core urban area of 50,000 or more population, and a micro area contains an urban core of at least 10,000 (but less than 50,000) population.

Card Column Punch - The coded definition (location) of a particular piece of data on a Mediamark data file.

Census Region - Four geographic regions defined by the Bureau of the Census, as follows:

  • North East - Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey
  • Midwest - Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska
  • South - Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas
  • West - Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, Washington, Oregon, California

Circulation - The average number of copies of a single issue of a newspaper or magazine that are made available to the public.

Cume - The number of different people who read or are exposed to any medium, vehicle or group (schedule) within a defined population. Also known as Net Unduplicated Audience.

Daypart Cume (Broadcast) Audience - The number of people who viewed or watched at any time during the time slot.

Decision Maker - For many categories, respondents are asked, “Who made the decision to buy?”

  • Yourself
  • Yourself and someone else
  • Someone else

A respondent who answers yes to “Yourself” or “Yourself and someone else” is considered to be a decision maker.

Demo - Short form for the demographic definition of a target or media audience. Used to describe the defined group as in “women 18-34”, “total adults”, or “men with household income $75,000 or more.”

Doublebase™ - Mediamark’s two year database consisting of four waves of respondent data (50,000 respondents). It contains only those items that were asked in the questionnaires for all four waves of fieldwork. The Doublebase™ is also the basis for the following Mediamark reports: “Business to Business”, “Mediamarket Reports (Local Markets)”, & “Upper Deck”.

Duplicated Audience - That part of an audience of two or more vehicles who are reached by more than one of these vehicles.

E - H

Employment Status - Working full time is defined as working 30 hours or more a week; working part time is defined as working less than 30 hours a week.

Frequency (Media) - The number of different issues (or showings) that a person is exposed to of a vehicle or vehicles in a media schedule.

Frequency Distribution (Media) - A table showing the number of people reached for each frequency level (i.e., number of issues read of a schedule). The sum of these audiences would equal the net reach of the schedule.

Frequency of Use (Product Data) - Most product categories include a question that asks the respondent how many or how much is used. This is reported on the Summary Table (in Mediamark Reporter) and is used to develop heavy, medium, and light users of the category. Frequency data are also available for individual brands and are carried on the Doublebase™ for brand volumetric analysis.

Gross Audience - The sum of the audience estimates for all issues and vehicles in a schedule.

GRPs - Gross Rating Points - Gross impressions expressed as a percent of a population; 50 GRPs equal 50% of the population.

Head of Household - The person designated as the “head of the household” by the repondent.

Homemaker (Principle Shopper) - The person designated as the one “who does most of the shopping for groceries and household items.” These are the persons who complete the homemaker (principle shopper) section of the product questionnaire.

Household - All the people living in a single dwelling unit; a dwelling unit being a room or group of rooms with complete kitchen facilities for the occupants’ exclusive use and where there is a direct access to the unit from the outside through a common hall. Institutions and boarding houses with five or more lodgers are excluded from this definition.

Household Income (HHI) - Total annual income of all household members (including money received from all sources, such as pensions, interest, dividends, as well as earnings.)

Household Use Products - Some parts of the product questionnaire contain questions relating to the use of products or services by the household (members) rather than a particular individual.
I - L

Income Ziptiles - The median household income for each five-digit zip code area is available from the U.S. Census. These data, updated each year, are incorporated into Mediamark’s database. Respondents are then ordered by the median income and classified into five equal size groups (quintiles) numbered from 1 (highest) to 5 (lowest).

Index - The probability of finding a user in a specific group relative to the probability of finding a user in the general population. Indices of user demographics and media preferences are used to indicate the direction and amount of difference from the average. The index of the average is, by definition, 100. Thus, an index of 112 reflects a 12% above-average incidence. An index of 89 indicates an 11% below-average incidence.

Individual Employment Income (IEI) - Total annual income from one’s job or profession before taxes, including salary, bonuses, profit sharing, etc., but excluding income from other sources.

Local Market (Mediamarket Reports) - Mediamark publishes annual Local Market reports for ten markets. These markets are: New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Washington, DC, Boston, Detroit, Dallas-Fort Worth and Atlanta.

Logo Deck - A deck of 3” x 4” cards containing black and white magazine logos. Also printed on the logo card is an identifying number, the publication frequency and the fieldwork wave. The logo cards are used as aided recall devices in the personal interview.

M - P

MSA - Metropolitan Statistical Area - Metropolitan areas include all counties within Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas, as defined by the Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards, Department of Commerce. Each MSA contains one or more central cities and the surrounding suburban area. These are coded in the database as MSA Central City and MSA Suburban. Please note that beginning with Fall 2006, MSAs were replaced by CBSAs.

Mean - The arithmetic average computed by summing the quantities in a set and dividing by the number of quantities.

Example: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6

Sum = 16

Mean = 3.2

Measured Publication - A publication that is included in the audience measurement portion of the Mediamark study.

Media Comparatives - A classification system for a population based on the relative use of two different media, i.e., heavy magazine and heavy television. (In the Mediamark database these subsets are offered as precoded groups.)

Median - A median is a statistical value in an ordered set of data which has an equal number in the distribution above and below it. A median requires a statistical calculation when the distribution involves data arrayed in ranges such as income groups and age groups. To calculate a median for data with ranges contact your on-line service provider.

MEMRI3 - Mediamark’s PC-based system for data processing capable of producing a large variety of customized tabulations on the GfK MRI (and other) databases.

Net Unduplicated Audience (Cume) - The number of different people reached by a combination of issues and/or vehicles of two or more issues, showings, magazines or other media.

Occupation - The kind of work a person is engaged in, coded according to the occupational classification system used by the Bureau of the Census and Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Pairs - The duplicated audience of two magazines, or any two media vehicles.

Personal Use Products - Part of the product questionnaire contains personal use products. The question is asked, for example, “You personally used in the last ___ months?” or “… drank ___ in the last ___ months?” Only personal usage by the respondent is requested here.

Population - The total number of people or objects in a defined group.

PRIZM™ - A proprietary geodemographic segmentation system provided by Claritas which classifies all of the United States into sixty-two basic lifestyle clusters based on social, economic, and lifestyle characteristics. These data are linked with the respondents on the Mediamark database.

Prototype, Magazine - A basis for estimating an unmeasured magazine by using the composition of one or more measured magazines.

Publication Rating - A magazine qualitative audience measure reported by number and percentage as follows:

  • One of my favorites
  • Very Good
  • Good
  • Average
  • Poor

In answer to, “How do you rate the magazine overall?”

Page Openings - The percent of pages opened of a magazine on the most recent reading day.

Pass-along Audience - (Secondary Audience) - Those readers of magazines who do not live in households where the magazine was purchased or received by subscription. (Any readers who are not primary.)

Place of Reading - An identification of where a magazine was read, asked of qualified readers. These include:

  • At doctor’s or dentist’s office
  • At beauty parlor or barber shop
  • At library, club, or school
  • In a business reception room
  • While traveling to or from work
  • On an airplane
  • During other traveling
  • At work
  • At store or newsstand
  • In someone else’s home
  • In your own home
  • Somewhere else

Q - T

Quintile - A division of a specified population into five equal groups, based on an ordered array of a specified quantity such as number of magazines read, income, number of ½ hours of television viewed. The order is from high (Quintile 1) to low (Quintile 5).

Race - Asked during the personal interview: What race or races do you consider yourself to be: White; Black/African-American; American Indian or Alaska Native; Asian or Other.

Rating (media) - Percentage of the population using a medium or vehicle.

Reach - Unduplicated audience of a single vehicle or schedule of vehicles. May be expressed as a percentage or in thousands of persons or households. Also called “cume.”

Reader Action - The types of actions taken by qualified readers. They are reported by number and percentage for the following actions:

  • Sent for information about a product advertised
  • Sent for a product advertised
  • Cut out an ad or ads
  • Cut out an article or articles
  • Cut out or used a recipe
  • Cut out or used a “cents-off” coupon
  • Visited the magazine’s website
  • Visited another website
  • Something else
  • Nothing

Reader Interest in Advertising - Degree of interest the magazine readers have in the publication’s advertising noted as:

  • Considerable interest
  • Some interest
  • Not much interest

Readers Per Copy - Total audience divided by number of copies of a publication that were distributed; the number of readers generated by the average copy.

Reading Days - The number of different days in the publication cycle in which a magazine is read. This is used as a measure of frequency of reading. The frequency distribution and the mean reading days are reported in the M-2 volume.

Reading Time - Time spent reading the magazine. A frequency distribution of the time spent reading and the mean are reported for each published magazine in the M-2 volume.

Recent Reading - A method of classifying respondents as readers based on reading or looking into a publication in its most recent publication; i.e., the last week for a weekly, last month for a monthly, etc.

Respondent - That person selected for the survey who completes the personal interview.

Sample - A subset of the population selected to be surveyed.

Sampling Error/Sampling Tolerances - A measure of the expected differences between survey estimates based on the sample and what would have been obtained had the entire universe been surveyed. GfK MRI produces estimates of sampling error based on a jackknife replicate procedure.

Share - Broadcast - In broadcast, the percentage of persons using television or radio in a time period tuned to a particular station.

Share of Users - The number (or percentage) of a product’s users accounted for by the particular brand (or type). The share of users for each brand (or type) is calculated by dividing a single brand’s users by the sum of all brands.

Share of Volume - The relative volume of a product accounted for by a particular brand or type. Share of volume is calculated for each brand (or type) by dividing a single brand’s volume by the sum of all brands.

Single Wave Data - Data based on one fieldwork wave (half sample). One wave data is indicated in the codebook with a “#” symbol in the codebook.

Target Audience - The group of people who are the primary market for a product or service and therefore, the most important group to reach with advertising messages.

Television Show Audiences - The estimates for regularly scheduled television shows are based on viewing of the specified show within the most recent frequency period; i.e., the most recent week for a weekly show, the most recent day for a daily show.

Types (Kinds) - A product descriptive related to product detail or packaging attributes, i.e., “dandruff” vs. “regular” shampoo, “gel toothpaste” vs. “paste toothpaste.”
U - Z

“Upper Deck” (Report) - An annual Mediamark report on the affluent market, defined as the top 10% of households based on household income.

Usage, Volume of (Product, Service) - The actual amount of a product purchased or used during a specified time period. Volume data are available on the Doublebase for each product, brand and type.

User, Brand - Respondents who indicate that they have used one or more brands of the product in a recent time period. A detailed identification as sole, primary, or secondary brand user is determined by evaluating both the brand usage data and the brand volume data.

  • Sole Brand User - A person who uses only one brand in a product category.
  • Primary User - A person who uses a brand such that its volume is equal to or greater than any other brand mentioned.
  • Secondary User - A person who uses any brand less than other brands mentioned.

User, Product or Service - The number of people who reported the use of a particular product or service within a specified time span.

Vehicle - An individual medium, such as a magazine, TV show, newspaper, or radio program.